Vol. 46, Nos. 1 and 2, June/December 2021
Wellness tourism, enclave tourism, Caribbean, cannabis tourism, porter’s diamond national competitive advantage multiplier effect, tourism leakage, CARICOM, regional identity, attachment, integration, migration, OECS, COVID-19, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Intelligent Tutors, Technology in Education, Technology Integration in Caribbean Schools, CCJ, Original Jurisdiction, RTC, Rule of Law, CSME, Child rights, court statistics, court performance measurement, therapeutic jurisprudence, children in the justice system, bullying, secondary schools, gender, Small Island Developing States, Trinidad and Tobago.
In this issue
Building a Model of Tourism for the People: The Case for Caribbean Cannabis Tourism
Pages: 1-33 Author(s): Sacha Joseph-Mathews and Marlon Anatol
Traditional enclave tourism models across CARICOM nations are becoming more profitable to large multinationals and less beneficial to local communities. One contributing factor to this inequity across beneficiaries is a decreasing multiplier effect due to substantial leakages across the region. Using Porter's Diamond of National Competitive Advantage Theory, we propose a new template for destinations to choose tourism products that are more advantageous to local populations both financially and environmentally. Applying the theory to tourism in the Caribbean, we make the case for a wellness tourism model with a specific emphasis on cannabis tourism products across the region. A model for choosing a sustainable tourism product is presented with a clear focus on developing and sustaining local entrepreneurship thereby reducing leakage. The model considers a destination's unique factor conditions, takes advantage of local demand conditions, creates significant downstream/upstream industries, and encourages the development of diverse firm structures. This new model requires less investments in large resorts and offers local economies more opportunities to develop strong export sectors which support and are supported by the tourism industry.
Keywords: wellness tourism, enclave tourism, Caribbean, cannabis tourism, porter’s diamond national competitive advantage multiplier effect, tourism leakage.
Similar Journeys, Different Conclusions: Intra-regional Migrants’ Perspectives on Regional Identities from four CARICOM Countries
Pages: 34-59 Author(s): Oral Robinson
Cross-national contact between citizens and a regional identity are essential for the legitimacy, viability and survival of regional integration. However, regional organisations and national governments shape policies and narratives that affect the lived experiences of intra-regional migrants. This in turn impacts collective identities and perceptions of integration. In the Caribbean, these processes are under-researched. Drawing on the narratives of 16 intra-CARICOM migrants from four countries (Belize, Jamaica, St. Lucia and Suriname), this paper examines similarities and differences in intra-CARICOM migrants’ self-representations and perceptions of integration. It found that positive perceptions of CARICOM promoted the formation of a regional identity but these perceptions varied by the nationality of respondents. Likewise, geopolitical issues, personal and national pragmatic interests, lived experiences in receiving countries and feelings of belonging impacted identity formation, but they varied by respondents’ nationality. General and unique recommendations for each country are offered to inform the development of a regional identity. by respondents’ nationality. General and unique recommendations for each country are offered to inform the development of a regional identity.
Keywords: CARICOM, regional identity, attachment, integration, migration, OECS.
Increasing the Integration of Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Caribbean Schools: Lessons from the Use of an Intelligent Spelling Tutor During COVID-19
Pages: 60-90 Author(s): André Coy, Phaedra S. Mohammed, Aneeqah Hosein, Paulson Skerrit, Asad Mohammed and Yewande Lewis-Fokum
The integration of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in Caribbean schools holds the promise of addressing some of the significant challenges currently facing struggling learners and their teachers. However, there are significant barriers to overcome in the effort to increase the integration of technology in education in the Caribbean context. In response to COVID-19 related school closures and the subsequent increased demands on parents to facilitate learning, an automated spelling tutor was built. The results of a stakeholder trial are examined in this paper together with the implications for the integration of CALL in Caribbean schools.
Keywords: COVID-19, Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Intelligent Tutors, Technology in Education, Technology Integration in Caribbean Schools
The Emergence of the ‘Rule of Law’ as a General Principle of Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Law
Pages: 91-118 Author(s): Jason Haynes
Since its inauguration in 2005, the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) has shown itself to be the engine of the regional integration movement. Indeed, the judgments emanating from the court’s original jurisdiction have been variously described as contextually relevant, insightful, and even ground-breaking. The court’s judgements in the areas of regional trade, the free movement of people and competition policy have buttressed the institution’s legitimacy and have placed the court in the league of other reputable international courts, such as the European Court of Justice (ECJ). One of the ways in which the CCJ has distinguished itself in the context of its burgeoning original jurisdiction jurisprudence to date, is through its fulsome embrace of ‘general principles of law’, such as: proportionality, the duty to state reasons, state liability and the rule of law. This is even in the absence of express Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas (RTC) provisions that articulate these principles. This article addresses the latter principle, namely the rule of law, which is the hallmark of all democratic societies and institutions. In this connection, it examines the CCJ’s progressive approach to the rule of law along three taxonomies, as recently articulated by the court itself in Rock Hard Cement v Barbados and The Caribbean Community  CCJ 2: (i) as an interpretative tool; (ii) as a procedural lens; and (iii) as a substantive normative principle. After critically examining a range of original jurisdiction decisions, including Trinidad Cement Limited v The Caribbean Community  CCJ 4 (OJ) and Shanique Myrie v Barbados  CCJ 3 (OJ), as well as the implications of these decisions for Caribbean businesses and citizens, it concludes that the CCJ’s jurisprudence over the last fifteen years demonstrates in no uncertain terms that the rule of law has emerged as perhaps the most important general principle of CARICOM law.
Keywords: CCJ, Original Jurisdiction, RTC, Rule of Law, CSME
A Peek Behind the Numbers: Children’s Visibility and Rights as Reflected in Jamaica’s Family Court Statistical Reports
Pages: 119-146 Author(s): Tania Chambers
The examination of officially collated statistics on service delivery and performance is a useful tool for testing and contesting issues of access, participation and rights in any area of governance. In recent years, as an outcome of targeted justice sector reforms, Jamaica has seen increased statistical reporting on court case performance. This article examines these statistical reports, determining the extent to which the current data provides useful measures of children's visibility and rights, and makes recommendations influenced by the Therapeutic Jurisprudence approach, regarding the scope of data collected and the implications for child rights and related justice policy.
Keywords: child rights, court statistics, court performance measurement, therapeutic jurisprudence, children in the justice system.
Comparing Bullying among Second Form Students at Two Secondary Schools in Trinidad and Tobago
Pages: 147-168Author(s): Candice Jagan-Spicer and Wendell Wallace
Bullying at secondary schools in the Caribbean is a prevalent but relatively under-researched phenomenon. As a result, a standardised questionnaire was utilised to compare the nature, extent and typology of bullying among form two students at two secondary schools in Trinidad and Tobago. Two hundred and eighty-nine students, comprising one hundred and eighty-two females and one hundred and seven males participated in the study. The results indicate that: (1) boys experienced more physical bullying than girls; (2) bullying occurred at specific locations at both schools; (3) there is a general lack of bystander action to stop bullying activities at both schools; and (4) both groups of students requested specific interventions to assist with bullying prevention.
Keywords: bullying, secondary schools, gender, Small Island Developing States, Trinidad and Tobago.
Mitigating the Impact of the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Caribbean Community: The Essential Role of Multi-Sectoral Collaboration
Pages: 169-181 Author(s): Greaves Natalie, Heather Harewood, Madhuvanti M. Murphy, Colette A. Cunningham-Myrie, Christina Howitt, Ian R. Hambleton, Selvi Jeyaseelan, Kim R. Quimby, Natasha Sobers, R. Clive Landis
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnosed in more than 153 million persons globally has caused over 3.2 million deaths. Health systems of large developed and developing countries, including the United States of America, Brazil and India struggled to contain COVID-19; paradoxically many Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) achieved relative success during the region’s first wave of COVID-19. We posit that using a multi-sectoral collaborative response, aligned to the six (6) components of the World Health Organisation’s Health Systems Framework (WHO-HSF), underpinned this achievement. We describe CARICOM’s actions as an exemplar for mitigating the COVID-19 impact in similar resource-limited settings.