Volume 38 Nos. 1 & 2
The thematic focus in this issue includes: Caribbean Community (CARICOM), civil society, consultation, participation, regional integration, social partners, stakeholders, whistle-blowing, accountants, Barbados, organisational commitment, corporate ethical values, Commonwealth Caribbean, westminster model, political culture, small size, constitutional reform, proximate determinants; place of residence; total expenditure; socioeconomic status; household heads; gender.
In this issue
Civil Society Consultation in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): Why Conceptual Clarity Matters
Pages: 1 - 34Author(s): Kristina Hinds-Harrison
This article uses a social constructivist approach to evaluate the ways in which the Caribbean community (caricom)has communicated the need to institutionalise civil society participation in the regions decision-making processes. This article analyses the Caricoms construction of language pertaining to civil society, consultation and other participation related terms. What emerges from this discourse analysis is the observation that for just over twenty years, the Caricom as an institution has transmitted unclear and sometimes contradictory signals surrounding the identity of individuals and groups to be included in proposed consultative arrangements. Caricoms failure to imbue terms such as civil society with meaning for this institutions context is connected to the institutions inability to create participatory mechanisms for Caricom.
Keywords: Caribbean Community (CARICOM), civil society, consultation, participation, regional integration, social partners, stakeholders
Exploring Factors Influencing Whistle-blowing Intentions among Accountants in Barbados
Pages: 35 - 62Author(s): Philmore Alleyne, Diana Weekes-Marshall, Roger Arthur
This study sought to obtain perceptions of whistle-blowing, and to examine the relationship between organisational commitment, corporate ethical values and whistle-blowing among accountants in Barbados. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to accountants working in organisations. As a result, 236 useable responses were obtained. Accountants did not perceive whistleblowing to be wrong but were still unlikely to blow the whistle. This reluctance was cited as stemming from high personal costs in the form of retaliation and victimisation, a close relationship with the wrongdoer, and publicity that could negatively impact the organisation. Factors cited as encouraging whistle-blowing included job satisfaction, severity of the incident, anonymity, personal benefits and the need to correct wrongdoing that may harm the organisation. Accounting staff were aware of their organisation’s code of ethics and encouragement of whistleblowing, but most seemed to be unaware of adequate mechanisms to protect potential whistle-blowers. Organisational commitment and corporate ethical values were significant predictors of internal and external whistle-blowing intentions. To encourage internal whistle-blowing, the organisation should provide training, education, improve the organisation’s code of conduct and ethical culture, create acceptance of internal reporting mechanisms, increase job satisfaction, and reward ethical behaviour.
Keywords: Whistle-blowing, accountants, Barbados, organisational commitment, corporate ethical values
Westminster Challenged, Westminster Confirmed: Which Way Caribbean Constitutional Reform?
Pages: 63 - 79Author(s): Paul K. Sutton*
The lecture explores why there has been so much activity associated with constitution reform in the Commonwealth Caribbean but so little change. It begins with a brief consideration of the reform experience and the nature of the Westminster model in the region and then goes on to identify three aspects which collectively begin to explain the lack of change: the distinctive political culture, the fact of small size and the practice of constitutional reform. It ends by considering the future of reform concluding that the Westminster model will remain dominant in the region unless or
until there is a move toward federation.
*This is a revised version of the lecture delivered on June 11, 2013 as the 12th Annual Caribbean Public Policy Lecture at the Cave Hill Campus of the University ofthe West Indies. I am grateful to Dr Judy Whitehead and to the staff of the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies for their invitation to deliver this lecture.
Keywords: Commonwealth Caribbean, Westminster model, political culture, small size, constitutional reform
A Note on the Fuel Charge Adjustment in Barbados
Pages: 80 - 93Author(s): Adrian Carter, Roland Craigwell, Winston Moore
Energy, demand and customer related costs are the three primary cost drivers that are incurred by any electric utility in the supply of electricity. These costs are reflected in the electric utility bill in Barbados as energy, demand, customer and fuel charges. The energy charge covers the variable non-fuel energy related costs; the demand charge recovers demand related costs; the customer charge regains the customer related costs; and the fuel charge returns the cost of fuel.
Proximate Determinants of Poverty among St. Lucians: A Cross-Sectional Household Level Analysis
Pages: 94 - 125Author(s): Victor Mlambo, Godfrey St. Bernard
Identification of factors that are strongly associated with poverty is imperative if sound poverty reduction strategies are to be implemented. This study employs 2006 St. Lucian household level data to examine relationships between household poverty status and selected household variables and household head characteristics. The proportion of non-poor households in rural districts was lower than the national average. Total household expenditure was higher in male-headed households than in female headed households in 8 of the 10 districts. Households headed by younger (< 25 years old) individuals tended to be poorer than those headed by older individuals. Regression analysis revealed that level of education of household heads was the strongest determinant of household welfare. Expansion of investment into secondary education may be a good initial strategy towards poverty reduction since 55.6 % of household heads in St. Lucia had no more than a basic primary education.
Keywords: proximate determinants; place of residence; total expenditure; socioeconomic status; household heads; gender
Human Trafficking in Barbados: Achievements and Continuing Hurdles
Pages: 126 - 154Author(s): Tom Durbin, Jill St. George
With the first individuals charged under the Barbados human trafficking legislation in April 2013, the offence is once again receiving significant attention across the Caribbean region. Barbados has been placed on the Tier Two Watch List by the United States Department of State and recognised internationally as both a ‘source’ and ‘destination’ state for human trafficking, as well as a trafficking route. Barbados is placed in an unenviable position, being alongside states such as South Sudan, Afghanistan, Iraq and Liberia on the Watch List, demonstrating how the only ‘developed’ state of the region has fallen behind many of its Caribbean neighbours. In response to the prevalence of human trafficking, the Barbados Government has sought to prevent, prosecute and protect, but measures remain in their infancy.
Cuba and the Question of Employment
Pages: 155 - 166Author(s): Leroy A. Binns
As Cuba battles with methodology in attaining an economic and social evolution true to the tenets of Marxism the road to recovery is steeped in uncertainty. A 50 year trade embargo imposed by Washington, natural disasters, limited resources, and an oversized workforce are all contributing elements to the erosion of communist Cuba.