Volume 40 No. 3
The thematic focus in this issue includes: Fast food, television viewing, attitude, adolescents, Trinidad, travel industry, critical theory, technology adoption research methodology, gender inequality, Development, Productive Education, Teachers, pre-service teacher training (PTT), emerging reflective teacher, Input-Output, Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM), Haiti
In this issue
Media Exposure and Attitudes of Adolescents toward Fast Food
Pages: 1-23Author(s): Fareena M. Alladin
Food is an indicator of identity, reflecting the evolution of a people and its culture. Fast food in particular has become a critical element of the contemporary culinary landscape. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between media exposure and attitude towards fast food among adolescents in Trinidad. The present research focuses on time spent viewing television, as well as the content of TV shows, and the influence they have on the attitudes of adolescents toward fast food. The study utilises data collected from a survey conducted among 295 secondary school students in Trinidad. A positive correlation was found between exposure to American television programming and the possession of favourable attitudes towards fast food. Positive correlations were also noted between exposure to American television programming and preference for American fast food.
This study, while filling a gap in the existing body of knowledge on eating behavior, provides insight into the factors which are influencing the rate of fast food consumption among one of the region’s vulnerable groups. In so doing, recommendations are offered for future research as well as policy planning in order to make meaningful interventions in the lives of adolescents in terms of their health and socio - cultural well - being.
Keywords: Fast food, television viewing, attitude, adolescents, Trinidad
Challenging the Reductionist Epistemology of Technology Adoption Research in the Travel Industry
Pages: 24-61Author(s): Andrew Spencer
This article gives a detailed overview of the dominant research paradigms that have shaped the growth and development of technology adoption research over the past 40 years. It not only traces the evolution of the field but also indicates potential avenues for further robust research through the use of Critical Theory. This paper attempts a fulsome observation of the literature and has identified that a large body of research on e-Tourism has been primarily positivist, which contributed to stagnation in the growth of new knowledge production. The work breaks new ground in assessing the methodologies employed in this field and evaluates their effectiveness in producing sufficient robustness in relation to technology adoption. The debate between positivism and interpretivism through the relevant literature is established and it is argued that critical theory, with its focus on allowing for exploration through multiple layers beneath the surface, is a useful philosophical underpinning for research of this nature with numerous layers and constructs to consider.
Research grounded in this paradigm will not only make for a more fulsome theorising about pertinent issues, but also pave the way towards the survival of travel firms in a changing global environment.
Keywords: travel industry, critical theory, technology adoption research methodology
Deconstructing Continuous Teacher Education through the Lens of Gender Equality
Pages: 62-85Author(s): Daniele Bobb
It is no surprise that with the advent of globalisation, the educational system and by extension teachers, are scrutinised and urged to keep up with the modern advances. Simultaneously, gender equality continues to garner particular recognition and support as a pertinent part of development globally. It is now seen as a main and necessary reality, a lens through which all aspects of development must be viewed. Resultantly, a gender and human rights exploration of the educational system can highlight the unequal power relations and injustices which exist. Teachers are therefore encouraged to engage in continuous educational training such as differential teaching techniques and ‘positive behavioural management’ techniques to be more productive as they engage differential learners. The practicality of such changes and development is hindered by systemic restrictions which are often ignored. The programs and policies advocated are often decontextualised rendering them ineffective as they ignore the gender inequality between teachers and thus the opportunities available and accessible to them. Hence, an exploration of the experiences of some teachers in Barbados sheds light on the inequality within the profession that often restricts teachers from gaining the continuous education recommended
Keywords: Gender inequality, Development, Productive Education, Teachers
Swimming against the Tide: Theorising Pre-Service Training For the Emerging Reflective Teacher
Pages: 86-117Author(s): Mia Jules and Donna-Maria Maynard
It is ‘sink or swim’ for novice teachers in Barbados as they are expected to ‘ride the waves’ of the education system without prior training. It is only after working in the school system that one becomes eligible for enrolment in teacher training programmes at the national teachers’ college. We argue that the established model of teacher training is no longer relevant to the future development of emerging Barbadian teachers for the 21st century. Hence, to advance this thesis we present: (a) the historical rationale for the current trajectory of teacher training in Barbados; (b) local literature about the prevailing controversies in teacher training and, (c) international research about the relevance and effectiveness of pre-service teacher training (PTT). We propose a new conceptualisation of teacher training entitled: the pre-service emerging reflective teacher training (PERTT) model; underpinned by policy recommendations and psychoeducational theory. This model provides a guiding framework for the modification of present education practices for novice teachers and highlights: (a) the value of guided reflective practices and instruction from more knowledgeable others; (b) the critical role of peer interactions (c) the importance of cultivating self-awareness, self-efficacy and self-regulation in prospective teachers; and, (d) the significance of PTT infrastructure in the development of emerging reflective teachers. Therefore, the implementation of the PERTT model will ensure the development of effective practitioners who can ‘stretch inward’ to understand one's intrinsic personal resources and ‘reach outward’ to effect change and manage the complex dynamics of school situations with which they will be confronted.
Keywords: pre-service teacher training (PTT), emerging reflective teacher
Transforming the Face of Teacher Education: Explore New Alternatives
Pages: 138-155 Author(s): S. Joel Warrican
The article explores modernising classroom practices in the English speaking Caribbean in alignment with current trends in education. Focused is placed on the democratization of classrooms, the integration of electronic technology in instructional practices and inclusion and recognition of the diverse characteristics of students. Transforming teacher education programs in the area of Early Childhood Development and rethinking how such programs may be delivered to meet Caribbean societies’ current and future needs is emphasised.
Transforming School Culture through Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)
Pages: 157-167Author(s): Lorna Down
The paper delves into the prospects of developing positive school cultures steeped in sustainability principles and practices to foster sustainable development through formal education. The article proposes that the re-culturing of schools to imbibe a sustainability ethos should be grounded in the four UNESCO principles of learning and explores how this may be achieved through the model depicted in the Sandwatch project.
Facts, Myths and Monsters: Interrogating Teacher Education in the Caribbean – A Dialogue with Errol Miller
Pages: 168-186Author(s): Sandra Robinson
This dialogue confronts the dominant ideologies that have driven the culture of education in the Caribbean by exploring the historical, sociopolitical, ideological and cultural conditions of teacher education.
Disaster Risk Reduction Education in the Caribbean: Policy, Practice, and Implications for Teacher Education
Pages: 187-209Author(s): Verna Knight
An assessment of the regional and sub-regional frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction in the Caribbean through the prism of education is provided in this paper. It explores the status of Disaster Risk Reduction Education in national school curricula and the implications for teacher training.
Status of Mathematics Education in the Eastern Caribbean: Issues and Possible Solutions for Teacher Preparation and Support
Pages: 210-233Author(s): Coreen Leacock
The article provides a comprehensive review of common factors teachers and stakeholders believe affect student performance in mathematics in Caribbean classrooms. It explores the profile of teachers and makes practical suggestions for helping teachers of mathematics at the primary and secondary levels to be more effective in the classroom.
An Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Mirebalais National Teaching Hospital on the Haitian Economy: An Input-Output Approach
Pages: 234-250Author(s): Michel-Ange Pantal, Peterson Abnis I Faure, Jean-Gregory Jerome, Jean-Claude Mugunga, Markus Von Wartburg, Matthew Peckarsky, Marc Van Audenrode, Pierre-Yves Cremieux
This research is the first application of a standard input-output methodology, a well-established method, to assess the effect of a major capital investment on a Social Impact health-care facility in Haiti.
Using the input-output methodology, we trace the impact of the operation of the ‘Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais’ (HUM) on the various sectors of the Haitian economy from food production to manufacturing. The analysis distinguishes among the direct, indirect and induced effects of the operation of the hospital on the economy. Consistent with other results using input/output methods to assess the impact of health care infrastructures, we find that the $16.2 million annual operating costs translates into a total impact on the Haitian economy of over $29 million, an 82 per cent additional output.
This analysis indicates, based on the best input-output matrix available, that the Mirebalais hospital has a significant effect on the Haitian economy beyond the impact of health care delivery and number of Haitian health care professionals trained at HUM.
Keywords: Input-Output, Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM), Haiti