by Prof. Errol Miller
This paper presents three general philosophical perspectives of secondary education and explores the specific philosophies that influence secondary education in the Caribbean. The author traces the historical development of secondary education in the region and brings us to the introduction and expansion of universal secondary education. He argues for a unifying philosophical perspective on secondary education for the Commonwealth Caribbean that would contribute to the competitiveness of the region in the global economy. Finally, the author offers suggestions as to how universal secondary education could be implemented on a regional level.
Key words: universal secondary education, philosophies of education, Commonwealth Caribbean.
by Prof. Winston King
Various international initiatives in education, followed by the development of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Reform Strategy (1991) led to initiatives in Universal Secondary Education (USE) in the countries of the sub-region.
As expected, approaches have differed from country to country. However, the common purposes have been to provide access, modified curriculum and trained teachers for the education of all children at secondary education level.
Several obstacles have been identified, for example improper planning and ineffective implementation in all aspects, with the possible exception of access.
There needs, therefore to be more monitoring, evaluation and support of various types to make the reform effective and sustainable. Every effort must be made to sustain the reform for the benefit of all children in the sub-region.
Key words: universal education, secondary education, curriculum, curriculum development, educational change.
by Prof. Stafford Griffith
The article discusses ways in which the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) contributed to the transformation of the Caribbean secondary education system. The contribution of the CXC to the efforts made in the region to move towards universal secondary education is highlighted. The article notes the ways in which the Council helped to assure both the relevance and the quality of secondary education in the region even as it helped to broaden access. It also discusses the broadening of opportunities by the Council for secondary school graduates to pursue tertiary education.
Key words: Caribbean Examinations Council; educational; transformation; universal secondary education.
by Dr. Veronica Marks
In St. Vincent and the Grenadines universal secondary education (USE), instituted by 2005, was one of the major pillars of the education revolution intended to propel social and economic advancement. Grounded in the philosophy that education was central to the development of human capital, it was recognized that increased access to secondary education would address the issue of equality of opportunity and support the national goal of a university graduate in every household by 2020. A phased model of implementation was adopted. However, policy implementation required extensive support in critical areas such as physical infrastructural development, curriculum review and development, pedagogy, teacher training and the provision of resources. Implementation was fraught with challenges and the impact necessitated alternative interventions. At the same time, the process underscored the need for a holistic approach to unprecedented reform efforts if quality education is the desired goal.
Key words: education revolution, policy, philosophy, implementation model, grouping, quality, interventions.
by Dr. Joel Warrican
This article discusses the Eastern Caribbean Joint Board of Teacher Education (JBTE) as an agency that is ideally positioned to implement and support regional educational initiatives. It presents the promotion of literacy development among adolescents as an example of what is possible. With the advancement of universal secondary education, the levels of competency in literacy among secondary school students are more varied and teachers are faced with the challenge of providing effective instruction for all students. This article discusses how the JBTE can contribute to the development and support of all secondary teachers as they seek to improve the literacy skills of their charges and ensure that they benefit fully from the opportunity to pursue secondary education.
Key words: Eastern Caribbean Joint Board of Teacher Education; literacy development; teacher development; universal secondary education.