Some believe it began 700 million years ago, others say it started in 1947 in Roswell, New Mexico. Regardless of its exact origin, the war between the worlds is about to reach its final conclusion: The End of Days. As global allies fall to the wayside and nations start a mad scramble to realign their military structures, only one element in the arsenal of the world can possibly give Earth a fighting chance at survival: The Matchstick Man. But who is this small being, exactly? Can he outsmart his former masters? Can he be trusted?



Media Exposure and Attitudes of Adolescents toward Fast Food

by Fareena M. Alladin

Food is an indicator of identity, reflecting the evolution of a people and its culture. Fast food in particular has become a critical element of the contemporary culinary landscape. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between media exposure and attitude towards fast food among adolescents in Trinidad. The present research focuses on time spent viewing television, as well as the content of TV shows, and the influence they have on the attitudes of adolescents toward fast food. The study utilises data collected from a survey conducted among 295 secondary school students in Trinidad. A positive correlation was found between exposure to American television programming and the possession of favourable attitudes towards fast food. Positive correlations were also noted between exposure to American television programming and preference for American fast food.

This study, while filling a gap in the existing body of knowledge on eating behavior, provides insight into the factors which are influencing the rate of fast food consumption among one of the region’s vulnerable groups. In so doing, recommendations are offered for future research as well as policy planning in order to make meaningful interventions in the lives of adolescents in terms of their health and socio – cultural well – being.

Key Words: Fast food, television viewing, attitude, adolescents, Trinidad.

Pages: 1-23

Challenging the Reductionist Epistemology of Technology Adoption Research in the Travel Industry

by Andrew Spencer

This article gives a detailed overview of the dominant research paradigms that have shaped the growth and development of technology adoption research over the past 40 years. It not only traces the evolution of the field but also indicates potential avenues for further robust research through the use of Critical Theory. This paper attempts a fulsome observation of the literature and has identified that a large body of research on e-Tourism has been primarily positivist, which contributed to stagnation in the growth of new knowledge production. The work breaks new ground in assessing the methodologies employed in this field and evaluates their effectiveness in producing sufficient robustness in relation to technology adoption. The debate between positivism and interpretivism through the relevant literature is established and it is argued that critical theory, with its focus on allowing for exploration through multiple layers beneath the surface, is a useful philosophical underpinning for research of this nature with numerous layers and constructs to consider. Research grounded in this paradigm will not only make for a more fulsome theorising about pertinent issues, but also pave the way towards the survival of travel firms in a changing global environment.

Key words: travel industry, critical theory, technology adoption research methodology

Pages: 24-61

Deconstructing Continuous Teacher Education through the Lens of Gender Equality

by Daniele Bobb

It is no surprise that with the advent of globalisation, the educational system and by extension teachers, are scrutinised and urged to keep up with the modern advances. Simultaneously, gender equality continues to garner particular recognition and support as a pertinent part of development globally. It is now seen as a main and necessary reality, a lens through which all aspects of development must be viewed. Resultantly, a gender and human rights exploration of the educational system can highlight the unequal power relations and injustices which exist. Teachers are therefore encouraged to engage in continuous educational training such as differential teaching techniques and ‘positive behavioural management’ techniques to be more productive as they engage differential learners. The practicality of such changes and development is hindered by systemic restrictions which are often ignored. The programs and policies advocated are often decontextualised rendering them ineffective as they ignore the gender inequality between teachers and thus the opportunities available and accessible to them. Hence, an exploration of the experiences of some teachers in Barbados sheds light on the inequality within the profession that often restricts teachers from gaining the continuous education recommended.

Key words: Gender inequality, Development, Productive Education, Teachers

Pages: 62-85

Swimming against the Tide: Theorising Pre-Service Training For the Emerging Reflective Teacher

by Mia Jules and Donna-Maria Maynard

It is ‘sink or swim’ for novice teachers in Barbados as they are expected to ‘ride the waves’ of the education system without prior training. It is only after working in the school system that one becomes eligible for enrolment in teacher training programmes at the national teachers’ college. We argue that the established model of teacher training is no longer relevant to the future development of emerging Barbadian teachers for the 21st century. Hence, to advance this thesis we present: (a) the historical rationale for the current trajectory of teacher training in Barbados; (b) local literature about the prevailing controversies in teacher training and, (c) international research about the relevance and effectiveness of pre-service teacher training (PTT). We propose a new conceptualisation of teacher training entitled: the pre-service emerging reflective teacher training (PERTT) model; underpinned by policy recommendations and psychoeducational theory. This model provides a guiding framework for the modification of present education practices for novice teachers and highlights: (a) the value of guided reflective practices and instruction from more knowledgeable others; (b) the critical role of peer interactions (c) the importance of cultivating self-awareness, self-efficacy and self-regulation in prospective teachers; and, (d) the significance of PTT infrastructure in the development of emerging reflective teachers. Therefore, the implementation of the PERTT model will ensure the development of effective practitioners who can ‘stretch inward’ to understand one’s intrinsic personal resources and ‘reach outward’ to effect change and manage the complex dynamics of school situations with which they will be confronted.

Key words: pre-service teacher training (PTT), emerging reflective teacher,

Pages: 86-117

Insights and Exchanges on Teacher Education in the Caribbean

An Analysis of the Economic Impact of the Mirebalais National Teaching Hospital on the Haitian Economy: An Input-Output Approach

by Michel-Ange Pantal, Peterson Abnis I Faure, Jean-Gregory Jerome, Jean-Claude Mugunga, Markus Von Wartburg, Matthew Peckarsky, Marc Van Audenrode, Pierre-Yves Cremieux

This research is the first application of a standard input-output methodology, a well-established method, to assess the effect of a major capital investment on a Social Impact health-care facility in Haiti.

Using the input-output methodology, we trace the impact of the operation of the ‘Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais’ (HUM) on the various sectors of the Haitian economy from food production to manufacturing. The analysis distinguishes among the direct, indirect and induced effects of the operation of the hospital on the economy. Consistent with other results using input/output methods to assess the impact of health care infrastructures, we find that the $16.2 million annual operating costs translates into a total impact on the Haitian economy of over $29 million, an 82 per cent additional output.

This analysis indicates, based on the best input-output matrix available, that the Mirebalais hospital has a significant effect on the Haitian economy beyond the impact of health care delivery and number of Haitian health care professionals trained at HUM.

Key Words: Input-Output, Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM), Haiti.

Pages: 234-250



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Editorial Review

“The Roswell Incident--whether legend, fact, or some combination of both--has inspired countless novels and movies over the years, but David Lynn Golemon's Event peels back the layers of Roswell with refreshing originality. The action is spectacularly cinematic, the characters compelling, and the story is a flat-out adrenaline rush that pits real-world, cutting-edge military technology against a literally out-of-this-world threat. Even better, the Event Group itself is one of the best fictional agencies to arise in the literature of government conspiracies.” ―New York Times bestselling authors Judith & Garfield Reeves-Stevens on the Event Group Thrillers.