The Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition is the reference of choice for JECS’s house style
This style guide will help you to:
- Prepare your text
- Prepare notes/bibliography/references
- Articles not submitted in the journal’s format and style will not be considered.
- Please supply an electronic copy only of the manuscript — including notes, reference list, acknowledgements, full contents list, list of illustrations, tables, graphs, to (firstname.lastname@example.org). This must contain original unpublished work, not being considered elsewhere.
- Articles should be in MS Word, using Times New Roman and font size 11, justified, using double spacing (including notes and quotations), with 1-inch margins on all four sides. Authors should retain a true copy. Unclear copy will not be reviewed.
- Pages should be numbered consecutively. Length of articles should be 7,000 to 9,000 words including footnotes. Research Notes and Commentaries should be in the 1,500 to 2,000 word range or less. Book reviews should not exceed 1,500 words.
- Since manuscripts are blind peer reviewed for editorial evaluation, the author’s name should appear on a separate covering page which can be readily detached. The author’s business address and a brief biographical paragraph describing author’s current affiliation should also be on this fly-sheet, together with the title of the article. On the first page of manuscript include title of article only.
- Acknowledgements and references to grants, etc., should appear as a footnote to the author’s name on the cover page and should not be included in the main list of notes.
- An abstract of no more than 100 words, setting out the main concerns, methods findings and conclusions along with key words must accompany the article. Articles without abstracts will be returned.
- The first sub-heading should be typed in BOLD and the second in plain italics. Both should be typed in upper and lower case and justified. Numbered headings are not used.
- Notes should be used only to provide additional comments and discussion and should be numbered consecutively throughout the article. Footnotes are preferred to endnotes.
- JECS’s citation style is based on the author-date system of referencing as detailed in the Chicago Manual of Style 16th Edition. Articles should have a reference list at the end containing all the works referred to, listed alphabetically by author’s surname, with the date of the article placed after the author’s name. For example, Hall, Stuart and Sarat Maharaj. 2001. Modernity and difference, Annotations 6, London: Iniva. Note that journal titles should be given in full, including volume and issue numbers, months and date, and page numbers of the article. For example, Seguino, Stephanie. 2008. “Micro-Macro Linkages between Gender, Development and Growth: Implications for the Caribbean Region. Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies 33(4): 8-42.
- References to source material in the text should take the form of surname, year and page numbers. e.g. (Paul 2002, 22-26). There should be no comma between name of author and year.
- Short quotations should be enclosed in double quotation marks and incorporated in the text. Longer quotations (more than forty words) should be indented from both margins, with no quotation marks (all double spaced). All items cited in the text and notes, and only those items, should be included in the list of references. Note that a quotation within a quotation should be single quotation marks.
- Dates should be rendered as follows: 9 January 1980; 1970s; twentieth century; 1945-52 but 1952-4 (i.e., do not repeat decade digit if the same). Acronyms such as UNESCO, FAO, etc., should not have stops between letters. British English spelling should be used throughout the manuscript.
- Charts, Diagrams, Figures and Tables. Essays that incorporate empirical findings in the overall discussion are preferable to excessive reliance on graphs, tables or appendices. If necessary, keep to a minimum and submit on separate sheets of paper. Please be reminded however of the difficulties associated with reproducing such for our readership. Tables and illustrative figures can be included in the text or on a separate sheet. They should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numbers and should have titles as well as numbers. Tables are to be doubled spaced. Figures, including maps, can also be on separate sheets and must be of professional standard and in camera-ready form. Authors are reminded that tables, appendices and graphs will be reproduced in black and white and should be designed accordingly. Their position in the text should be indicated.
- The Editorial staff reserves the right to make any corrections or alterations considered necessary.
- Authors should use the active voice except where they have a good reason to use the passive. “We” for two or more authors, never as a substitute for “I”.
- Mathematical notation is very expensive to reproduce and should be kept to a minimum. Avoid the use of unusual symbols where common ones are satisfactory. Avoid fractions in the form a over b and use a/b instead. Avoid such distinguishing marks as carets, tildes, and circumflexes above letters, as these are not readily available and require artwork. Use the acceptable alternatives (B*) where possible. Special care is required with letters and symbols that are close in appearance, such as u and v and w and with the use of 0 and 1 where these can be read as either letters or numbers. Superscripts and subscripts in mathematical terms should be accurately aligned. Where mathematical formulae are set out and numbered, these numbers should be placed against the right hand margin, as…(1). Careful checking of the layout of all mathematical formulae including alignment, centring, length of fraction lines and type, size, position and closure of brackets, etc., should be carried out before the final manuscript is submitted to avoid corrections at the proof stage. Where it would assist referees, authors should provide supplementary mathematical notes on the derivation of equations.
- Book review headings should appear as follows: Title, author, publisher, place, date, also pagination and ISBN #, if available.
- Contributors will be sent pdf proofs of their articles, if time allows, but unaccepted manuscripts will not be returned. Also, they will be allowed 1-week to respond to ONLY those corrections identified by the editorial staff.
- Copyright. Contributors are reminded that the articles are accepted with the understanding that they do not in any way infringe on any existing copyright, and further, that the contributor or contributors will indemnify the publisher regarding any such breach. By submitting their manuscript, the authors agree that the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute their articles have been given to the Publishers, including reprints, photographic reproductions, microfilm or any other similar reproductions.
- Authors will receive two complimentary copies of the Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies (JECS).
Authors please pay particular attention to the following:
- When citing author and date in text do not place a comma between author’s name and date as in (Paul 1996).
- Please do not use footnotes for bibliographic information. These should go in the Reference list at back.
- All tables, charts and graphs will be reproduced in black and white and should therefore not make use of colours to distinguish variables.
- Please italicise et al. and vis-à-vis.
- No section numbering please. This means all references to Section numbers must also be removed from text.
- Apply British English as opposed to American spelling conventions. However, as a matter of style, we prefer the following:
- Use ‘s’ rather than ‘z’ e.g.globalisation, modernisation.
- Use ‘centre and theatre’ versus ‘center and theater.’
Do not change spelling, punctuation or capitalisation in quoted material.
Be consistent throughout the entirety of the paper.
Agreement of text citation and reference list entry
For each author-date citation in the text, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list under the same name and date. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure such consistency as well as the accuracy of the reference (http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/home.html see 2.29). Ensure that all references cited in text and notes of article are provided in Reference list at the end, and that the years and author’s names correspond. Among other things, specific page references to a journal article, when given in a text citation, must fall within the range of pages given for the article in the reference list entry.
Reference list entries with same author(s), same year
Two or more works by the same author in the same year must be differentiated in both the text and reference list by the addition of a, b, and so forth (regardless of whether they were authored, edited, compiled, or translated), and are listed alphabetically by title. Text citations consist of author and year plus letter. For example:
Please follow the syntax below for references:
Books: author’s last name, comma, first name (regular order for co-authors), followed by a period, the publication year, and a period. Insert book title in italics and title case, followed by a period, city of publication, a colon, name of publisher, and a period.
Nicholson, Lawrence. A. and Jonathan G. Lashley. 2016. Understanding the Caribbean Enterprise: Insights from MSMEs and Family Owned Businesses. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Journal Articles: author’s last name, comma, first name (regular order for co-authors), followed by a period, the publication year, and a period. Insert article title using title case without quotation marks, a period, the journal title in italics and followed by the volume (issue number in parentheses, if applicable), a colon, the page number(s), and a period.
Seguino, Stephanie. 2008. “Micro-Macro Linkages between Gender, Development and Growth: Implications for the Caribbean Region.” Journal of Eastern Caribbean Studies 33 (4): 8-42.
Websites: Author/owner of site, period, page title inside quotation marks and title case, period, title of the site, period, URL, period.
Blogs: Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text (“In a comment posted to The Becker-Posner Blog on February 23, 2010,…”) instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography.
Jack, February 25, 2010 (7:03 p.m.), comment on Richard Posner, “Double Exports in Five Years?,” The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21, 2010,
Newspapers: Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text.
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010 “But Enough about Me,” New Yorker, January 25, 2010.